Poliovirus is a human enterovirus and member of the family of Picornaviridae. The genome is a single-stranded RNA genome and because of its short genome and its simple composition is poliovirus widely regarded as the simplest significant virus. There are 3 serotypes of Poliovirus, PV1, PV2 and PV3. PV1 is the most common form encountered in nature, however all three forms are extremely infectious. Poliovirus infection occurs via the fecal-oral route. The virus is shed in the feces of infected individuals.
In 95% of cases only a primary, transient presence of viremia occurs and the poliovirus infection is asymptomatic. In about 5% of cases, the virus spreads and replicates in other sites such as brown fat, reticuloendothelial tissue and muscle. The sustained viral replication causes secondary viremia and leads to the development of minor symptoms such as fever, headache and sore throat. The paralytic poliomyelitis occurs in less than 1 % of poliovirus infections. The paralytic disease occurs when the virus enters the central nervous system and replicates in motor neurons within the spinal cord, brain stem, or motor cortex, resulting in the selective destruction of motor neurons leading to temporary or permanent paralysis. In rare cases, paralytic poliomyelitis leads to respiratory arrest and death. In cases of the paralytic disease, muscle pain and spasms are frequently observed prior to weakness and paralysis.
AmpliSens® Poliovirus-FRT PCR kit is an amplification test for the qualitative detection of Poliovirus and Enterovirus group C (HEVC) RNA with Poliovirus differentiation (Sabin 1, Sabin 2, Sabin 3) in clinical materials and environmental samples.