Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a group of more than 150 related viruses. They are called papillomaviruses because certain types may cause warts, or papillomas, which are benign (noncancerous) tumors. Some HPVs, such as those that cause common warts that grow on hands and feet, do not spread easily. However, more than 40 HPV types are sexually transmitted and these HPVs spread very easily through genital contact.
Some types of sexually transmitted HPVs cause cervical cancer and other types of cancer. These are called high-risk, oncogenic, or carcinogenic HCR HPVs (about 13 types). Other sexually transmitted types of HPV do not appear to cause cancer and are called low-risk HPVs (LCR HPVs).
Although genital HPV infections are very common, most occur without any symptoms and go away without any treatment within a few years. However, some HPV infections can persist for many years. Persistent infections with high-risk HPV types can cause cell abnormalities. If untreated, areas of abnormal cells (lesions) can in some cases develop into cancer.
Some types of sexually transmitted low-risk HPVs cause warts to appear on or around the genitals or anus. Most genital warts are caused by two HPV types, HPV-6 and HPV-11. Warts may appear within several weeks after sexual contact with a person who is infected with HPV, or they may take months or years to appear, or they may never appear.
AmpliSens® HPV HCR genotype-titre-FRT PCR kit (R-V67-F-CE) - the detection, exact differentiation and quantitation of 14 HPV HCR types - 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 is carried out in four tubes. Each HPV type is registered on its own channel that allows not only detection but also to differentiation and quantification of the virus genotype. For detection FAM/Green, JOE/HEX/Yellow, ROX/Orange and RED/Cy5 channels are needed. Analytical sensitivity is 1 x 103 copies/ml.
AmpliSens® HPV HCR screen-titre-FRT PCR kits (R-V31-T-2x-CE; R-V31-T-4x-CE) are capable to detect and quantify the HPV DNA of the following types: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59. The method is based on simultaneous amplification and detection of E1-E2 HPV genes and fragment of beta-globine gene, which is used as an endogenous internal control (detected in the channel for the FAM fluorophore). PCR analysis for the presence of DNA of 12 HPV types is carried out in two tubes (PCR kit variant screen-titre-FRT 2x) or in a single tube (PCR kit variant screen-titre-FRT 4x).
PCR kit variant screen-titre-FRT 2x: HPV DNA is detected in the channel for the JOE/HEX/Yellow fluorophore. The genotypes belonging to phylogenetic group A9 (16, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58) are detected in one tube, whereas the genotypes belonging to phylogenetic group A7 (18, 39, 45, and 59) as well as genotypes 51 and 56 are detected in the other tube.
PCR kit variant screen-titre-FRT 4x: HPV DNA of each HPV phylogenetic group is detected in separate fluorescent channels (group A9 HPV, in the channel for the JOE/ HEX/Yellow fluorophore; group A7 HPV, in the channel for the ROX fluorophore; and HPV types 51 and 56, in the channel for the Cy5 fluorophore).
Analytical sensitivity is no less then 5 x 103 copies/ml. AmpliSens® HPV HCR screen-titre-14 FRT PCR kit (H-2311-1-13-CE) is capable to detect and quantify (without exact genotype differentiation) the HPV DNA of the following types: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 and detect, exactly differentiate and quantify the HPV DNA types: 16, 18 and 45. The method is based on simultaneous Real-time multiplex PCR and detection of HPV genes DNA fragments and a fragment of β-globin gene DNA which is used as the internal endogenous control. For detection - JOE/HEX/Yellow, FAM/Green, ROX/Orange and Cy5.5/Crimson channels are needed. Analytical sensitivity is no less then 1 x 103 copies/ml. Endogenous Internal Control, present in all our HPV kits, allows not only control stages of PCR (DNA extraction and amplification) but also evaluate sample quality and storage adequacy. If epithelial swab quality is not sufficient (number of epithelial cells in the clinical sample is insufficient), signal of β--globin gene will be significantly lowered. Such β-globin based Internal Control significantly reduces false negative results, caused by a poor clinical sample quality.