Human Papilloma virus Infections

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a group of more than 150 related viruses. They are called papillomaviruses because certain types may cause warts, or papillomas, which are benign (noncancerous) tumors. Some HPVs, such as those that cause the common warts that grow on hands and feet, do not spread easily. However, more than 40 HPV types are sexually transmitted and these HPVs spread very easily through genital contact. Some types of sexually transmitted HPVs cause cervical cancer and other types of cancer. These are called high-risk (about 13 types), oncogenic, or carcinogenic HPVs. Other sexually transmitted types of HPV do not appear to cause cancer and are called low-risk HPVs. Although genital HPV infections are very common, most occur without any symptoms and go away without any treatment within a few years. However, some HPV infections can persist for many years. Persistent infections with high-risk HPV types can cause cell abnormalities. If untreated, areas of abnormal cells (lesions) can in some cases develop into cancer. Some types of sexually transmitted low-risk HPVs cause warts to appear on or around the genitals or anus. Most genital warts are caused by two HPV types, HPV-6 and HPV-11. Warts may appear within several weeks after sexual contact with a person who is infected with HPV, or they may take months or years to appear, or they may never appear. AmpliSens® HPV HCR Genotype titre FRT (R-V67-CE) - the detection, exact differentiation and quantitation of 14 HPV HCR types - 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 is carried out in four tubes. Each HPV type is registeredon its own channel that allows not only to detect, but also to differentiate the virus genotype and quantify it. For detection - FAM/Green, JOE/Yellow/HEX, ROX/Orange and RED/Cy5 channels are needed. Analytical sensitivity is 1 x 103 copies/ml. AmpliSens® HPV HCR screen-titre-FRT (R-V31-T-2x-CE)PCR kit is capable to detect and quantify (without exact genotype detecting) the HPV DNA of two main phylogenetic groups – A7, A9, which include the following 10 types: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 52, 58, 59 – as well as the HPV DNA 51 (A5 group) and 56 (A6 group) types. The method is based on simultaneous Real-time multiplex PCR and detection of E1-E2 HPV genes DNA fragments and a fragment of β-globin gene DNA which is used as internal endogenous control. For detection - JOE/Yellow and FAM/Green channels are needed. Analytical sensitivity is no less then 5 x 103 copies/ml. AmpliSens® HPV HCR screen-titre-FRT (R-V31-F-CE)PCR kit is capable to detect and quantify (without exact genotype differentiation) the HPV DNA of the following types: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 and detect, exactly differentiate and quantify the HPV DNA types: 16, 18 and 45. The method is based on simultaneous Real-time multiplex PCR and detection of HPV genes DNA fragments and a fragment of βglobin gene DNA which is used as internal endogenous control. For detection - JOE, FAM, ROX, Orange and Cy5.5 channels are needed. Analytical sensitivity is no less then 1 x 103 copies/ml. Endogenous Internal Control, present in all our HPV kits, allows not only control stages of PCR (DNA isolation and amplification) but also evaluate sample quality and storage adequacy. If epithelial swab quality is not sufficient (number of epithelial cells in the clinical sample is insufficient), signal of β-globin gene will be significantly lowered. Such β-globin based Internal Control significantly reduces false negative results, caused by a poor clinical sample quality.